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虚拟语气讲解


上传时间:2015-04-23 来源:高中英语虚拟语气讲解


第一篇:虚拟语气讲解

高中英语语法讲解--虚拟语气 1. 语气的定义和种类 (1)语气的定义 语气是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。

(2)语气的种类 A. 陈述语气 表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。

We are not ready. Did it rain all day yesterday? What a fine day today! B. 祈使语气 表使说话人的建议、请求、邀请、命令等。

Be careful. Don’t forget to close the window. Open the door, please. C. 虚拟语气 表使动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。

2. 虚拟语气 一. 虚拟语气在条件句中的应用 学习虚拟语气在条件句中的用法之前我们必须清楚条件句的种类

条件句有真实条件句 与非真实条件句(或称虚拟条件句)两种。真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,句中 的条件从句与结果主句都用陈述语气。如

If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, I will go for a picnic. 假若明天不下雨,我就去野餐。

Oil floats if you pour it on water. 你如把油倒在水里,油就浮起来。

虚拟条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能发生或实现的, 句中的条件从句与结果主 句皆须用虚拟语气。

条件从句 与现在事实相违背 过去式(动词是 be 用 were) 与过去事实相违背 had + 过去分词 主句 should / would/could/might + 动词原 形 should / would/could/might + have + 过去分词 1) should + 动词原形 should / would/could/might + 动词原 与未来事实相违背 2) were + 动词不定式 形 3) 过去式(动词是 Be 也可以用 were) 1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式 (be 的过去式用 were), 主句的谓语用 should (would, might, could)+动词原形。

If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic.如果现在不下雨的话,我们就出去野餐了。

(事实是:天在下雨,我们不能出去野餐。表示愿望。) If he came here, he might be able to help you. 如果他来这,他就能够帮助你了。

(事实是:他没来这,他不可能帮助你。表示对他的良好印象。) 2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句,条件从句的谓语用 had+过去分词,主句的谓语用 should ( would, might, could)+ have +过去分词。

She would have gone to the party if she had been invited. 要是当初她被邀请的话,她就会去参加这次聚会了。

(事实是:当时没有人邀请她,因此,她没有来参加聚会。表示后悔。) If she hadn't called me, I would have overslept this morning. 今天早上,她要是不叫我的话,我就会睡过头了。

(事实是:她今天早上叫我了,我没有睡过头。表示感激。) 3. 与将来事实可能相反的虚拟条件句, 条件从句的谓语用动词的过去式(be 的过去式用 were); should+动词原形;were to+动词原形,主句用 should (would, might, could)+ 动词原形。

If I were to be twenty years old next year, I would take the course of French. 明年我要是二十岁,我就会学法语。

(事实是:我现在已经老了,明年我学不了法语了。) If it should fail, I would try again.要是失败了,我会再试一次。

(事实是:有可能失败,可我会再试。表示未知。) 虚拟过去式有时并不表示“不大可能实现的假设”,而是表示一种希望或不希望发生的动作。

If we caught the early train, we’d get there by lunch time. 假如我们赶上早班火车,到午饭时间我们就会到达那里了。(表希望) If we missed the train, we should have to wait an hour at the station. 假如我们赶不上这班火车,我们就得在车站等一小时。(表不希望) 4. 混合型的条件句 当条件从句与主句所表的时间不一致时, 虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。

主句和从句 的谓语动词并不相互呼应, 这种条件句叫混合条件句。

较多见的混合型条件句是从句用过去 完成时(指过去行为),而主句用一般时(指目前状态)。

He would pass the test if he had taken my advice. 如果他听了我的劝告, 他现在会通过考试。

If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now. 假如昨天我对他说了,现在我就知道该怎么办了。

You would be much better now if you had taken my advice. 假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。

如条件从句用 if I were...,主句则可用表任何时间的虚拟形式。

If I were not busy, I would have come. 假如我不忙,我就会去了。(were 表过去) If I were you, I would go. 假如我是你,我会去的。(were 表现在) 二. 连词 if 的省略(倒装) 如果虚拟条件句的谓语部分有 were, had 和 should 时, 可省略 if, 把 were, had 和 should 放到从句主语前面去,多见于书面语。

Had you not helped me, I should have failed.要是没有你的帮助,我就失败了。

Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的地位, 你也会这样干的。

Should they attack us, we’ll wipe them out completely. 假如他们进攻我们,我们就把他们彻底消灭干净。

例:1. _________ he would have succeeded in the examination. A. Had he worked hard B. If he worked hard C. If he works hard D. If he has worked hard 2. _______ it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. A. Should B. Be C. Were D. Will 3. _______, he would teach us how to solve the problem. A. Were he here B. Was he here C. If he is D. Is he here 4. _________, we should be glad. A. Were they to arrive tomorrow B. They were to arrive tomorrow C. They would arrive tomorrow D. They arrive tomorrow 5. _______ the clouds, you would find the airplane in the sky easily. A .Were it not for B. If it had not been for C. If it were not D. Had it not been for 答案:1—5 AAAAA 三. 含蓄条件句 虚拟条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来, 只暗含在上下文中, 这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。

含蓄条件句大体有三种情况。

1) 条件暗含在短语中。

But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment. 如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功的。(暗含在分词短词 but for your help) What would I have done without you? 如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在介词短语 without you 中) It would be easier to do it this way. 这样做会比较容易。

(条件暗含在不定式短语 to do it this way 中) This same thing, happening in wartime, amount to disaster. 同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语 happening in wartime 中) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never could have vanquished that great beast. 他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词 or) Alone, he would have been terrified. 如是单独一人, 他是会感到害怕的。

(暗含条件是 alone) 2) 条件暗含在上下文中。

You might stay here forever. 你可以永远待在这儿。(可能暗含 if you wanted to) We would have succeeded. 我们本来是会成功的。(可能暗含 if we had kept trying) Your reputation would be ruined. 你的名誉会败坏的。(可能暗含 if you should accept it) 3) 在不少情况下,虚拟式已变成习惯说法,很难找出其暗含的条件。

You wouldn’t know. 你不会知道。

I would like to come. 我愿意来。

四. 不用 if 引导的条件从句 虚拟条件句中的条件从句除用 if 引外, 还可用 when, unless, lest, suppose, as if, for fear, in case, on condition 等词语来引导。

The peasants prepared to feed the city when it should be freed. 农民已准备在这座城市解放后供给粮食。

Lest you should not have heard all, I shall begin at the beginning. 我怕你没有听全,所以我再从头开始讲一遍。 Unless I were well, I wouldn’t be at school. 除非我好了,否则我不会上学。

Suppose you were given a chance to study in America , would you accept? 假如给你一个到美国学习的机会,你会接受吗?(suppose 或 supposing =what if) Supposing it were so?(=Supposing it were so,what would happen?) 要是这样的话,会怎么样呢? He can use the bicycle on condition that he should return it tomorrow. 如果明天能还回来,他就可以借用这辆自行车。

In case I forget , please remind me of my promise 如果我忘了,请提醒我的诺言。

Susan is walking slowly ,as if she were tired. 苏珊走得很慢,就像是累了似的。

与 if 一样,上述词语所引导的条件从句亦可用直陈语气,表可能实现或发生的事。

虚拟语气补充讲解(第二课时) 虚拟语气除主要用于条件句(也就是状语从句)外,还可用于主语从句、宾语从句、表 语从句、定语从句等。

1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用 “常用在 It is (was)+形容词 / 过去分词+that 引导的主语从句”的句型中的主语从句要用 虚拟语气。主语从句的谓语用 should+动词原形(或 should+have+过去分词)或只用动词原形 (尤其是美国英语)。should 在此是助动词,本身并无实义,这种主语从句中的 should 有时有 感情色彩。

It's important that we(should)work out a plan. (带有“要求”的含义) It's better that he go at once. (带有“建议”的意思) ☆ 用于本句型的形容词并不多,常见形容词有:necessary,important,best, right, impossible,preferable,desirable, imperative, advisable,essential,reserved,urgent, 等。

It is necessary that he(should)be sent there at once. It's strange that he should say so. I was glad that he should go. It is important that we should speak politely. It is a pity that she should fare so badly. It's right that you should think that way. ☆ 用于本句型中的过去分词就是表示提议要求、 命令等动词的过去分词, 如 suggested, settled, required,requested,demanded,urged,decided, proposed,ordered,desired,advised 等。

It is requested that Professor Liu(should)give us a lecture. It is desired that we(should)get everything ready by tonight. I’m ashamed you should have done such a thing. It has been suggested that the meeting(should)be put off.有人建议推迟会议。

It is settled that you leave us, then? 注意:这种句型中的主语从句也可用陈述语气,如:It was important that he made an explicit statement on this score last week. 他上个星期对于这一方面做了明确的说明,这是很重要的。

句型总结

It is necessary that… It is important that… It is natural that… It is strange that… It is surprising that… It is impossible that… It is great pity that… It will be better that… It is suggested that… It is ordered that…. It is demanded that… 2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用 1). 宾语从句在表示提议、要求、命令、意志等动词后,其谓语用 should+动词原形或 只用动词原形的虚拟语气,作为 suggest,request,demand,urge,propose,prefer,advise, insist,require,order,command,maintain,ask,object, arrange, desire 等动词的宾语。

The doctor suggested that he not go there.医生建议他不要去那里。

He suggested that we should leave early. 他建议我们早点动身。

The judge ordered that the prisoner should be remanded. 法官命令被告还押。

例:1. The teacher insisted that every student _______ every other line. A. writes B. write C. would write D. wrote 2. Jack’s father insists ______ in this hotel. A. not staying B not to stay C. that he not stay D. staying not 3. They insisted that you _______ them a quick answer. A. should give B. gave C. must give D. would give 4. The guard at the gate insisted that everybody _______ the rules. A. obeys B. obey C. will obey D. would obey 答案:1—4 BCAB 注:1) 、suggest 为“建议去做…; 命令…”从句用 should + do 为“ 说明; 暗示”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。

1. The doctor suggested that I should take the medicine three times a day. 2. The doctor suggested that my grandmother had caught a bad cold. 3. The expression on her face suggests that she knew the secret. 4. They suggested that these books ______ at once. A. should take away B. would be taken away C. be taken away D. take away 5. I suggested a meeting _______ to discuss the matter. A. will be held B. would be held C. should hold D. be held 6. His silence at the meeting suggested ________ to your plan. A. didn’t agree B. hadn’t agreed C. wouldn’t agree D. shouldn’t agree 答案:4—6 CDA 2) 、insist “坚持要去做…,坚持应该去做”,从句用 should + do 为“坚持表明,坚持说/解释”, 从句用过去时或过去完成时。

1. She insisted that she ______ ill of him behind him, but he didn’t believe. A. hadn’t spoken B. shouldn’t speak C. wouldn’t speak D. not speak 2. He insisted that we ______ the boy to hospital. A. take B. took C. would take D. will take 3. He insisted that he _______ our car. A. should steal B. would steal C. hadn’t stolen D. steal 4. The teacher commanded that all his students ______ their homework after class. A. would hand in B. should hand in C. handed in D. might hand in 5. The workers requested that their working conditions ______. A. must be improved B. be improved C. would be improved D. were improved 6. They required that the crops _______ harvested at once. A. should be B. be C. are D. must be 答案:1—6 BACBBA 2). wish 的宾语的从句,表示愿望,常省去连词 that。

☆ 从句的谓语动词可用过去式,表示现在的愿望(与现在事实相反),虽实现的可能 性不大,但仍有实现的可能。

I wish it were true.我但愿这是真的。

☆ 从句的谓语动词还可用“could(would,might)+动词原形”用来表示将来的愿望 I wish you would stay a little longer.我希望你再待一会儿。

☆ 表示无能为力的过去愿望(与过去事实相反),可用“had +过去分词”或“could (would,might)+have+过去分词” I wish you had called yesterday.我希望你昨天来过电话。

We wish you had come to our New Year’s party.我们真希望你来参加了我们的新年联欢会。

例:7. I wish I _______ you yesterday. A. saw B. did see C. had seen D. were to see 8. —Have you visited the Science Museum? —No, but I really wish I _______. A. will B. have C. did D. had 9. I wish that the rain ______ stop. A. will B. would C may D. can 答案:7—9 CDB 3). would rather, would sooner 等表示愿望,其宾语从句常用虚拟过去式。

☆ 表示与现在和将来含义事实相反的虚拟语气要用动词的过去式 ☆ 用过去完成式(had + 过去分词)表示过去事实相反的含义 I would rather you came tomorrow.我宁愿你明天来。

I’d sooner she left the heavy end of the work to some one else.我宁愿她把重活留给别人。

4). 有些动词,如 think, expect, believe,其否定式的宾语从句亦可用 should+动词原形。

I never thought he should refuse.我万没有想到他会拒绝。

She did not expect that you should come.她没有预料你会来。 3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的应用 名词 suggestion,proposal,order,advice,demand 等作主语,其后的表语从句中的谓 语动词一般使用虚拟语气,用 should +动词原形或省略 should。

My suggestion is that we (should) send a few soldiers to help them. 我的建议是我们应派几个战士去增援他们。

My advice is that you (should) treat her well. 我的忠告是你应该善待她。

He makes the demand that she (should) leave the place at once. 他提出一个要求,要求她立刻离开这个地方。

My suggestion is that we should tell him.我的建议是我们应该告诉他。

Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible. 我们唯一的请求就是尽快解决这个问题。

注意:虚拟语气也可以用于同位语从句。

There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team.有一项建议是布朗应该 离队。

4. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的应用 常用在 It is time (that)…句型中,定语从句常用虚拟过去式 It is time the children went to bed. 孩子们早该上床睡觉了。(表示催促) It's high time that he began to think how to deal with money. 他早该开始考虑如何与钱打交道。

It is time we left.我们该走了。

It is time we went to bed.我们该去睡觉了。

5. 虚拟式动词原形亦常用在独立句中,表愿望 Long live the Communist Party of China!中国共产党万岁! God bless you! 上帝保佑你。

God damn it! 该死的! The devil take you! 见鬼去吧! So be it then. 就那样吧。

6. 虚拟时态与谓语动词时态的关系

从句中的虚拟时态往往不受全句谓语时态的影响。

1) 用于主语从句。试比较

It is important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

It was important that he should know about this.他必须知道此事。

2) 用于宾语从句。试比较

I suggest that we should go tomorrow.我建议我们明天走。

I suggested that we should go the next day.我建议我们第二天走。

She said, “If I were a boy I would join the army.”她说,“我如是男孩,就参军。” She said that if she were a boy, she would join the army.她说她如是男孩就参军。

但强调现在时刻的虚拟式在间接引语中需要遵守时态一致的原则。试比较

“If I knew how it worked, I could tell you what to do,” he said. “假如我知道它是如何运行的话,我就会告诉你该怎么办,”他说道。

He said that if he had known how it worked he could have told me what to do. 他说假如他知道它是如何运行的话,他就会告诉我该怎么办。

“If I knew the answer to all your questions I'd be a genius,” he said. “我如知道你所有问题的答案,我就是天才了。”他说道。

He said that if he knew the answer to all my questions, he’d be a genius. 他说他如知道我所有问题的答案,他就是天才了。

但如果全句谓语是虚拟语气, 其后从句的时态则多受其影响, 现在时态应随之而变为过 去时态。

如:I would think he was wrong.我看他是错了。(须用 was,试比较:I think he is wrong) It would seem that she was right. 她似乎是对的。(须用 was,试比较:It seems that she is right) 专项训练

1.I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I _____ the book from which it was made. A. have read B. had read C. should have read D. are reading 2.You are late. If you _____ a few minutes earlier, you _____ him. A. come; would meet B. had come; would have met C. come; will meet D. had come; would meet 3.The two students talked as if they _____ friends for years. A. should be B. would be C. have been D. had been 4.It is important that I _____ with Mr. Williams immediately. A. speak B. spoke C. will speak D. to speak 5.He looked as if he _____ ill for a long time. A. was B. Were C. has been D. had been 6.If the doctor had come earlier, the poor child would not _____. A. have laid there for two hours B. have been lied there for two hours C. have lied there for two hours D. have lain there for two hours 7.I wish that I _____ with you last night. A. went B. could go C. have gone D. could have gone 8.Let’s say you could go there again, how _____ feel? A. will you B. should you C. would you D. do you 9.I can’t stand him. He always talks as though he _____ everything. A. knew B. knows C. has known D. had known 10._____ the fog, we should have reached our school. A. Because of B. In spite of C. In case of D. But for 11.If you had told me in advance, I _____ him at the airport. A. would meet B. would had met C. would have met D. would have meet 12.Mike can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish he_____ me how. A. teaches B. will teach C. has taught D. would teach 13.I would have told him the answer, had it been possible, but I _____ so busy then. A. had been B. were C. was D. would be 14.He’s working hard for fear that he _____. A. should fall behind B. fell behind C. may fall behind D. would fallen behind 15.If it _____ another ten minutes, the game would have been called off. A. had rained B. would have rained C. have seen D. rained 16.He suggested that they _____ use a trick instead of fighting. A. should B. would C. do D. had 17.My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _____ there. A. not went B. won’t go C. not go D. not to go 18.I would have gone to the meeting if I _____ time. A. had had B. have had C. had D. would have had 19.Would you rather I _____ buying a new bike? A. decided against B. will decide against C. have decided D. shall decide against 20.You look so tired tonight. It is time you _____. A. go to sleep B. went to sleep C. go to bed D. went to bed 21.—Why didn’t you buy a new car? —I would have bought one if I _____ enough money. A. had B. have had C. would have D. had had 22.If she could sew, _____. A. she make a dress B. she would have made a shirt C. she will make a shirt D. she would had made a coat 23._____ today, he would get there by Friday. A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves 24.His doctor suggested that he _____ a short trip abroad. A. will take B. would take C. take D. took 25.The Bakers arrived last night. If they’d only let us know earlier,_____ at the station. A. we’d meet them B. we’ll meet them C. we’d have met them D. we’ve met them 26.If I _____ you, I _____ more attention to English idioms and phrases. A. was; shall pay B. am; will pay C. would be; would pay D. were; would pay 27.We might have failed if you _____ us a helping hand. A. have not given B. would not give C. had not given D. did not give 28.The law requires that everyone _____ his car checked at least once a year. A. has B. had C. have D. will have 29.It is strange that he _____ so. A. would say B. would speak C. should say D. will speak 30.Had I known her name, _____ A. or does she know mine? B. and where does she live? C. she would be beautiful. D. I would have invited her to lunch. 31.He has just arrived, but he talks as if he _____ all about that. A. know B. knows C. known D. knew 32.If I _____ the money, I would have bought a much bigger car. A. possessed B. owned C. had D. had had 33.He was very busy yesterday; otherwise, he _____ to the meeting. A. would come B. came C. would have come D. will come 34.The librarian insists that John _____ no more books from the library before he returns all the books he has borrowed. A. will take B. took C. take D. takes 35.I left very early last night, but I wish I _____ so early. A. didn’t leave B. hadn’t left C. haven’t left D. couldn’t leave 36.I do not have a job. I would find one but I _____ no time. A. had B. didn’t have C. had had D. have 37.I wish that you _____ such a bad headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert. A. hadn’t B. didn’t have had C. hadn’t had D. hadn’t have 38.He insisted that we all _____ in his office at one o’clock. A. be B. to be C. would be D. shall be 39.Helen couldn’t go to France after all. That’s too bad. I’m sure she would have enjoyed it if _____. A. she’s gone B. she’ll go C. she’d gone D. she’d go 答案

1—5 BBDAD 6—10 DDCAD 11—15 CDCAA 6—20 ACAAD 21—25 DBCCC 26—30 DCCCD 31—35 DDCCB 36—39 DCAC 解析

1.wish 后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。 2.条件句表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。

3.as if 后面如果表示真实情况就不用虚拟。

4.It is important that 是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用 sb. should do 的形式。

5.as if 后面是真实情况,不虚拟。

6.lain 是 lie 的过去分词,表示“躺”。

7.could have done 表示“本来可以”。

8.与将来相反的虚拟语气,主句用过去将来时。

9.as if 表示不可能发生的事情时用虚拟语气。

10.but for 表示“要不是……的话”,通常与虚拟语气搭配使用。

11.in advance 表示“事先”,表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。

12.wish 的宾语从句表示发生在将来的愿望用过去将来时。

13.but 的并列句表示真实情况,不用虚拟语气。

14.for fear that 后面的状语从句用 sb. should do 的形式。

15.表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时,从句用过去完成时。

16.suggest 后面的宾语从句用 sb. should do 的形式。

17.suggest 后面的从句用 sb. should do 的形式,should 可以省略。

18.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

19.would rather 的宾语从句用 sb. did 的形式。

20.It is time 后面的定语从句用 sb. did 的形式。

21.第一个 had 是过去完成时,第二个 had 表示“有”。

22.would have done 是过去将来完成时,表示与过去相反的虚拟语气。

23.这是虚拟语气的倒装形式,把 if 去掉,助动词提前。

24.suggest 后面的从句用 sb. should do 的形式,should 可以省略。

25.表示与过去事实相反,主句用过去将来完成时。

26.在虚拟语气中,不管什么人称,be 动词都要用 were 的形式。

27.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

28.require 后面的从句用 sb. should do 的形式,should 可以省略。

29.It is strange that 是主语从句的虚拟语气,从句用 sb. should do 的形式。

30.had I known 是与过去相反的虚拟语气的倒装形式。

31.as if 表示不可能发生的事情时用虚拟语气。

32.第一个 had 是过去完成时,第二个 had 表示“有”。

33.otherwise 经常可以搭配虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反。

34.当 insist 表示“坚持认为”时不用虚拟形式。

35.wish 后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

36.but 的并列句表示真实情况,不用虚拟语气。

37.wish 后面用虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反用过去完成时。

38.当 insist 表示“坚持要求”时从句用虚拟形式。

39.表示与过去事实相反,从句用过去完成时。

第一篇:虚拟语气讲解

语气 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气

陈述语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。不同 的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助 句法形式)来表示。 虚拟语气 虚拟语气的概念 ? 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用来 表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而是一 种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步 状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿望、要求、 命令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表语从句、同位 语从句)。 一、虚拟语气在条件句中 虚拟条件句 与现在 事实相 反的假 设 与过去 相反的 假设 If+主语+动词的过去式 (动词be用were) 主句 主语+should,would, might,could+动词 原形 If+主语+had +过去分词 主语+should, would, might, could +have done 与将来 相反的 假设 1、If+主语+动词过去式 主语+should, would 2、If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 3、If+主语+should +动词原形 might, could+动词 原形 eg:If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If he had hurried ,he could have caught the train. If I were to go abroad ,I would go to America. More practice

如果我是你,我就会努力学习. If I were you, I would work harder at my lessons. 如果我知道他的电话号码,我就给他打电话了. If I had known his telephone number, I would have called him. 如果明天下雨的话,我们会取消比赛. If it should \were to rain, we would call off the match. 使用虚拟条件句要注意的几点: 1. 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为 所发生的时间不一致时,被称为:错综时间条件句“, 动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整. If you had followed my advice , you would be better now. 如果你听我的建议,你现在就会痊愈了. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now. 如果你努力学习的话,你现在就会是大学生 了. 2.省略句 在条件句中,可省略 if,把were ,had, should 提到 句首,变为倒装句式. If I were at school again, I would study harder. Were I at school again, I would study harder. If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Had you come earlier, you would have met him. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. 二、虚拟语气在名词从句中的运用 (1)用于宾语从句 1、wish 后面的宾语从句中。

一般用虚拟语气,表示一种不可能实现的愿望。其谓 语动词形式为: 表现在 表过去 过去时 过去完成时 表将来 would, might, could+动词原形 I wish (that) I were a bird. I wish (that) I had seen the film last night. I wish (that) I would\could go. 2.用于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句。

insist, order, command, suggest, advise, propose, require, request, demand, desire etc. We suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. They insisted that the boy (should) go with them. 注意:suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲时,insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时,应用陈述语气。

The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. 他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意. The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. 那个人坚持说他没有偷钱. (2)用于表语从句和同位语从句 在suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request 等名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用 “should+动词原形” should可以省略. My idea is that we (should ) think it over before accepting it. My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted by others. We all agree to that suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off. (3)虚拟语气在 在主语从句中 A.在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词 用

should + 动词原形 1. 我们有必要出去散散步。 It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. 2 她这样做是很自然的。

It’s natural that she should do so. 3 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. B. 在It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required…. that-clause句型中从句用(should )+动词原型 It is demanded that we should work out a plan. C. 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonder that…..句型中从 句也常用(should )+动词原型 It’s a pity that you (should) miss a good chance. 三、虚拟语气在其他从句中 1. It is (high / about ) time that…从句中的谓 语动词用过去式或should+动词原形,should 不能省略. It is high time that you went / should go to school. 2. If only 引导的感叹句(要是...该有多好啊) 表示现在的情况,应用过去式; 如果是过去的情况, 应用过去完成时态 If only I knew the answer! If only I had seen the film yesterday! 3. would rather + 从句 动词用过去式或过去完成时 I would rather you told me the truth. I would rather you had gone there last Sunday. 4. as if ( as though) 看起来 常用虚拟形式,即 表示与现在事实相反,用过去式;与过去事实相反 用过去完成式 (had done). He treats /treated the boy as if he were his own son. He speaks/ spoke as if he had known about it 5. even if ( even though)即使 Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem. Even if I had been busy then, I would have helped you. 四 情态动词+ have done could have done 本来可以- - might have done 本来可能 - - should / ought to have done 本来应该做 - - shouldn’t / ought not to have done 本不该做 - - 你本不应该告诉她真相。 You shouldn’t have told her the truth . needn’t have done 本不必做 - - 比较:didn’t need to do 没必要做也没有做 - - - 我没必要擦窗户。我兄弟做了 I didn’t need to clean the windows . My brother did it. would have done 本来会去做---我没有足够的钱.否则我会买那本书的. I didn’t have enough money, otherwise I would have bought that book. Choose the best answer: C 1. It is strange that the little boy _____ speak two foreign languages. A. could b. can C. should D. would A 2. He gave orders that the experiment ____ before 5:30pm. A. be finished B.will finish C. must be finished A 3.He _____ you more help,even though he was very busy. A, might have given B. might give C.may have given A 4.Without the leadership of the Party,there ____no New China. A.would be B. has been C. should be D.was 5. He is talking so much about America as if he A _____ there. A.had been B. has been C. was D. has gone B 6. The young man insisted that he _____ nothing wrong and _____ free. A. did; set B. had done; should be set C. should do; be set D. had done; must be set c 7. Had you listened to the doctor, you _____ all right now. A.are B. were C. would be D. would have been B 8. You _____ come earlier. The bus left a moment ago. A. would B. should have C. may D. have

第一篇:虚拟语气讲解

虚 拟 语 气 第一节 语气 英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气

陈述语气 Indicative Mood) 祈使语气(Imperative ( , Mood)和虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood) 。不同的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助句法形式) 来表示。 第二节 虚拟语气的概念 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而是一种 假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、 建议等 (在宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句)。 第三节 虚拟语气在条件句中 虚拟条件句 与现在事实相反的假 If+主语+动词的过去式 设 (动词be用were) 主句 主语+should,would, might,could+动词 原形 与过去相反的假设 与将来相反的假设 The platform would collapse if all of you stood on it.假如你们都站在上面,这个 如果鲁迅还活着,看到新中国的伟大成 平台就会塌下来的。

就他会多么高兴啊! If+主语+had +过去分词 主语+should, would, might, could If the doctor had been available,the child +have done would have been saved. 如果有医生在, 这个小孩就会得救了。

如果飓风发生在白天,死亡的人数会更 多。

1、If+主语+动词过去式 主语+should, would 2、If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 might, could+动词 3、If+主语+should +动词原形 原形 I could see the surface of the moon with 如果明天是星期天, 我就去看望我奶奶。

my own eyes if I were to go to the moon some day. 如果有一天我登上了月球, 就能亲眼目睹月球的表面是什么样子 了。

NOTE:使用虚拟条件句要注意的几点

1. 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为:错综时 间条件句“,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整. If you had followed my advice , you would be better now. 如果你听我的建议,你现在就会痊愈了. 2.在条件句中,可省略 if,把 were ,had, should 提到句首,变为倒装句式. If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Had you come earlier, you would have met him. 1 第四节 虚拟语气在名词从句中的运用 一、虚拟语气在主语从句中 A.在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,表示某事重要、奇怪、自然、 必要等;that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用

should + 动词原形 (should 可以省略)例如

It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

这类的形容词还有 advisable(可取的) ,appropriate(适当的) ,compulsary(必须的) ,crucial(关 键的) desirable , (理想的) essential 必要的) imperative , ( , (迫切的) important(重要的), , possible (可能的) ,preferable(更好的) ,probable(可能的) ,strange(奇怪的) ,urgent(急迫的) ,vital (极为重要的)等。

B. 在 It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required/recommended/requested/required/. that-clause 句型中从句用(should )+动词原型,表示愿望,建议,请求等主观意愿等。

It is demanded that we should work out a plan. C. 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonderproposal/recommendation/suggestion/surprise/advice that…..句 型中从句也常用(should )+动词原型,表示建议,命令,请求,道歉,怀疑,惊奇等。

It’s a pity that you (should) miss a good chance. 二、用于宾语从句 用于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句。

insist, suggest, order, command, advise, propose, require, request, demand, desire etc. 注意:suggest 当表示“暗示、表明“讲时,insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时,应用陈述语气。

The teacher suggested that we should clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. 他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意. He insisted that all of us be there on time by any means. 他坚持要求我们大家想尽办法按时去那里。

The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. 那个人坚持说他没有偷钱. 三、用于表语从句和同位语从句 在 suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request /desire/ recommendation/resolution 等 名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用“should+动词原形” should 可以省略. My advice is that you should practice speaking English as often as possible. 我的建议是你要尽可能经常地练习说英语。

The suggestion that the mayor should present the prizes was accepted by everyone. 每个人都接受由市长颁发奖金这一建议。 第五节 虚拟语气在其他从句中 1. It is (high / about ) time that…从句中的谓语动词用过去式或 should+动词原形,should 不能省 略. It’s high time we went to the laboratory. 该是我们去实验室的时候了。

2. If only 引导的感叹句(要是..该有多好啊;但愿); . 2.1 表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望。用过去时或 would/could+动词原形表示; If only you listened to us!要是你听我们的话该多好啊! 2.2 与过去事实相反的愿望,用过去完成时。例如

If only I had listened to the doctor’s advice! 我要是听了医生的话就好了。 2 3. would rather,would sooner, would as soon,would prefer + 从句 也常用虚拟语气,表示宁愿、 但愿之意。这种虚拟语气表示的不是与事实相反的假设,而是一种尚未实现的愿望 3.1 表示现在或将来的情况:在上述词后+主语+动词过去时。例如

I would rather you left today.我宁愿你今天走。

I would sooner my daughter attended a public school. 但愿我的女儿能上公立学校。

I would prefer he didn’t stay here too long. 我倒希望他不要在这儿待得太久。

3.2 表示过去的情况,在上述词后+主语+动词过去完成时。例如

I would rather I hadn’t seen that film yesterday. 我宁愿昨天没有看那场电影。

4. as if ( as though) 看起来 even if ( even though)即使 常用虚拟形式,其构成形式与 wish 后宾 语从句里的虚拟语气的构成形式相同,表示与现在事实相反(从句意上判断) ,用过去式;与过 去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done),would/could +动词原形。例如

The football fans of act as if they were crazy. 那些足球迷们经常就像疯了似的。

(act 与 were 发生 在同一时间平面上) He often talks about London as though he had been there. (had been there 发生在 talkes 之前) 他常常谈起伦敦,就好像他去过那里似的。

She often talks and talks as if she would never stop. (would never stop 后于 talks and talks 发生) 她常常讲起来没完没了。

5. 虚拟语气在 in order that,so that,in case,lest,for fear that 引导的目的状语从句中的应用, 从句中的谓语动词用"may(might)+动词原形"或"should+动词原形"。在以 lest 引导的从句中, 谓语动词用"should+动词原形"。例如

He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain.他拿上了雨衣以防下雨。

He was punished lest he should make the same mistake again. 他被处以惩罚以免他再犯。

He put his coat over the child for fear that he (should) catch cold.他把外套给孩子穿上以防孩子感 冒。

6.wish 后面的宾语从句中, 一般用虚拟语气, 表示一种不可能实现的愿望。

其谓语动词形式为

表现在 过去时 (表示与主句的谓语动词同时存在或先于主句谓语动词存在的与事实相反的愿 望) I wish I were a bird. (were 与 wish 发生在同一时间平面上) 表过去 过去完成时 (从句的谓语动词先于主句的谓语动词发生或存在, (that)+主语+had+动词 的过去分词) I wish you had come to our Christmas party. 表将来 would, might, could+动词原形 (从句的谓语动词后于主句的谓语动词发生或存在) I wish that the rain could stop soon. 虚拟语气专项练习 1. Jack wishes that he _____ business instead of history when he was in university. A. studied B. had been studying C. study D. had studied 2. The millions of calculation involved, had they been done by hand, _____ all practical value by the time they were finished. A. had lost B. would lose C. would have lost D. should have lost 3. It is essential that these application forms _____ back as early as possible. A. must be sent B. are sen w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m C. will be sent D. be sent 3 4. It is important that the hotel receptionist _____ that guests are registered correctly. A. has made sure B. must make sure C. made sure D. make sure 5. It was essential that the application forms _____ back before the deadline. A. must be sent B. be sent C. would be sent D. were sent 6. It's necessary _____ the dictionary immediately. A. that he will return B. that he return C. that he returned D. that he has to return 7. It is important that enough money _____ to fund the project. A. be collected B. was collected C. must be collected D. can be collected 8. I don't think it advisable that Tom _____ to the job since he has no experience. A. is assigned B. be assigned C. will be assigned D. has been assigned 9. The suggestion that the mayor _____ the prizes was accepted by everyone. A. would present B. present w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m C. ought to present D. presents 10. We are all for your proposal that the discussion _____. A. be put off B. should put off C. was put off D. is to put off 11. You _____ him so closely; you should have kept your distance. A. shouldn't have been following B. mustn't follow C. couldn't have been following D. shouldn't follow 12. The manager would rather his daughter _____ in the same office. A. does not work B. had not worked C. not to work D. did not work 13. Wouldn't you rather your child _____ to bed early? A. go B. would go C. went D. goes 14. I'd rather you _____ make any comment on the issue for the time being. A. don't B. didn't C. wouldn't D. shouldn't 15. Mike's uncle insists _____ in this hotel. A. staying not B. that he would not stay C. not to stay D. that he not stay 16. As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, I have directed that all measures ____ for our defense. A. had been taken B. be taken C. would be taken D. to be taken 17. The manager of the hotel requests that their guests _____ after 11:00 p.m. A. not to play loud music B. don't play loud music C. shouldn't play loud music D. couldn't paly load music 18. We desire that the tour leader ____ us immediately of any change in plans. A. inform B. informs C. informed D. has informed 19. He suggested _____ to tomorrow's exhibition together. A. us to go B. we shall go C. we went D. we go 20. Sometimes I wish I _____ in a different time and a different place. A. be living B. would live C. were living D. would have lived 4 21. I wish I _____ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A. could have slept B. might have slept C. slept D. have slept w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 22. Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she _____ a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often. A. has to get B. had got C. were to get D. could have got 23. If the whole operation ____ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost. A. was not planned B. had not been planned C. has not been planned D. were not planned 24. Had he worked harder, he _____ the exams. A. must have got through B. would get through C. would have got through D. could get through 25. _____ before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party. A. Had they arrived B. Were they arriving C. Would they arrive D. Were they to arrive 26. _____ right now, she would get there on Sunday. A. Would she leave B. Were she to leave C. If she leaves D. If she had left 27. _____ for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand. A. Not being B. Without being C. Had it not been D. Not having been 28. _____ for your laziness, you could have finished the assignment by now. A. Had it not been B. Weren't it C. It were not D. Had not it been 29. If it _____ too much trouble, I'd love a cup of tea. A. isn't B. weren't C. wasn't D. hadn't been 30. If I hadn't stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you _____ now. A. wouldn't be smiling B. won't smile C. couldn't have smiled D. didn't smile 31. We didn't know his telephone number; otherwise we _____ him. A. would have telephoned B. would telephone C. must have telephoned D. had telephoned 32. He must have had an accident, or he _____ then. A. would have been here B. should be here C. had to be here D. would be here 33. Some women ____ a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family. A. must make w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m B. should have made C. would make w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m D. could have made 34. We _____ to start our own business, but we never had enough money. A. have hoped B. had hoped C. would hope D. should hope 35. The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he _____ himself. A. injure B. injured C. had injured D. would injure 36. "You are very selfish. It's high time you _______ that you are not the most important person in the world", Edgar said to his boss angrily. A. realized B. realize C. have realized D. should realize 37. It's already 5 o'clock now. Don't you think it's about time _____ ? A. we are going home B. we went home C. we go home D. we can go home 38. If only the committee _____ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible. A. approve B. can approve C. will approve D. would approve 5 39. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I _____ your advice. A. follow B. would follow C. had followed D. have followed 40. I'm sure he is up to the job ____ he would give his mind to it. A. if only B. in case C. until D. unless 虚拟语气历年高考题 1. Sorry, I am too busy now. If I ____ time, I would certainly go for an outing with you. (2012 湖南) A. have had B. had had C. have D. had 2. If my car ____ more reliable, I would have driven to Lasa instead of flying last summer. (2012 陕 西) A. was B. had been C. should be D. would be 3. We ____ the difficulty together, but why didn’t you tell me? (2012 北京) A. should face B. might face C. could have faced D. must have faced 4. We lost our way in that small village, otherwise we ____ more places of interest yesterday. (2012 福建) A. visited B. had visited C. would visit D. would have visited 5. Grace doesn’t want to move to New York because she thinks if she ____ there, she wouldn’t be able to see her parents very often. (2012 安徽) A. lives B. would live C. having asked D. were to live 6. But for the help of my English teacher, I ____ the first prize in the English Writing Competition. (2009 福建) A. would not win B. would not have won C. would win D. would have won 7. Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we ____ it without you.(2008 山东) A. can manage B. could have managed C. could manage D. can have managed 8. _____ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. (2006 湖北) A. Would you be B. Should you be C. Could you be D. Might you be 9. --- Do you mind if I open the window? --- ____ I feel a bit cold. (2004 广东) A. Of course not. B. I’d rather you didn’t. C. Go ahead. D. Why not? 10. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ____ in love, at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. (2002 上海) A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall 11. What would have happened ____, as far as the riverbank? (2001 上海) A. Bob had walked farther B. if Bob should walk farther C. had Bob walked farther D. if Bob walked farther 12. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he ____ a goal. (2001 上海春) A. had scored B. scored C. would score D. would have scored 13. If only he ____ quietly as the doctor instructed, he wouldn’t suffer so much now. (2000 上海) A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie 14. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ___ , too cold for us to live. (1997 上海) A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly 15. You didn’t let me drive. If we ___ in turn, you ____ so tired. (1996 上海) A. drove; didn’t get B. drove; wouldn’t get 6 C. were driving; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got 16. _____ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. (1995 上海) A. If it is not B. Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not 17. Jane’s pale face suggested that she ____ ill, and her parents suggested that she ____ a medical examination. (1994 上海) A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was; has 18. I did not see your sister at the meeting. If she ____, she would have met my brother. (1994 全国) A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come 19. ____ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. (1994 上海) A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 20. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years. (1993 上海) A. should be B. would be C. have be D. had been 21. If the weather had been better, we could have had a picnic. But it ____ all day. (2008 全国) A.rained B. rains C. has rained D. is raining 22. They ___ two free tickets to Canada, otherwise they’d never have been able to afford to go. (2007 山东) A. had got B. got C. have got D. get 23. --- Don’t you think it necessary that he ___ to Miami but to New York? --- I agree, but the problem is ___ he has refused to. (2005 江苏) A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what 24. Had I known about this computer program, a huge amount of time and energy .(2010 浙江) A.would have been saved B.had been saved C.will be saved D.was saved 25. John went to the hospital alone. If he ____ me about it, I would have gone with him. (2010 天津) A. should tell B. tells C. told D. had told 26. ---- The weather has been very hot and dry. ---- Yes. If it had rained even a drop, things would be much better now! And my vegetables ________. (2010 北京) A. wouldn’t die B. didn’t die C. hadn’t died D. wouldn’t have died 27. George is going to talk about the geography of his country, but I’d rather he____ more on its culture. (2010 江苏) A .focus B. focused C. would focus D. had focused 28. If we _____ the other road, we might have arrived here in time for the meeting. (2010 陕西) A. take B. had taken C. took D. have taken 29. --- Pity you missed the lecture on nuclear pollution. --- I _____ it, but I was busy preparing for a job interview. (2011 福建 34’) A. attended B. had attended C. would attend D. would have attended 30. — Where are the children? The dinner’s going to be completely ruined. — I wish they ____ always late.(2011 北京,28) A. weren’t B. hadn’t been C. wouldn't be D. wouldn't have been 7 答案与解析 1. D 译文:杰克宁愿在大学学的是商务而不是历史。

本 句 是 wish 后 接 虚 拟 语 气 的 用 法 。

在 wish 后 面 所 接 的 宾 语 从 句 中 , 要 用 虚 拟 语 气 结 构 。

w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 其主要形式有三种

表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish +主语+动词过去式; 表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish +主语+had+过去分词; 表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish +主语+would+动词原形。

2. C 译文:数以百万计的相关计算,如果由人工操作的话,到计算完成时早已失去其实用价值。

本句是条件句中与过去事实相反的虚拟语气结构的用法。由作文省略 if 的从句(had they been done by hand)中 的时态可知,C 为正确答案。

3. D 译文:这些申请表尽快寄出是极其必要的。

本句涉及主语从句中的虚拟语气用法。在 It is important/necessary/… that-clause 结构中,that 从句中谓语 动词常用虚拟语气,其形式为:(should)+动词原形。

这一结构是否用虚拟语气取决于主句 It is important/… that 中的形容词(如本句中的 important ) 。

4. D 译文:旅馆接待员必须确保旅客登记正确,这点是很重要的。

本句涉及主语从句中的虚拟语气的使用。

5. B 译文:申请表务必在截止日期之前寄回。

本句涉及主语从句中的虚拟语气的使用。

6. B 译文:他必须马上归还字典。

本句涉及主语从句中的虚拟语气的使用。

7. A 译文:重要的是募集足够的钱,为这个项目提供资金。

本句涉及主语从句中的虚拟语气的使用。

8. B 译文:汤姆缺乏经验,指派他做这项工作我认为是不合适的。

本句涉及复合宾语从句中的虚拟语气的使用。在以 it 为形式宾语的复合宾语从句中也可以用虚拟语气, 其形式为:(should) +动词原形。这一结构中的虚拟用法主要取决于作补语的形容词 advisable。

9. B 译文:大家都接受了让市长发奖的建议。

本句涉及同位语从句中的虚拟语气用法。英语中在表示命令、建议、劝告、愿望、要求等词后所接的同 位语从句中,从句谓语动词常用虚拟语气,其形式为:(should) +动词原形。常用的这类词有 suggestion, advise, order, recommendation, requirement, command, proposal 等名词。w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 10. A 译文:我们都支持你提出的推迟讨论的建议。

本句涉及同位语从句中的虚拟语气用法。

11. A 译文:你本不该跟他跟得这么紧;你本该保持一定距离的。

本句涉及----暗含虚拟句。“should/ought not+ have+ 过去分词”表示“本不应该做某事,但却做了”,含有某 种责备的口气。“should/ought to+have+过去分词”表示“本应该做某事,却未做”。

例如:You should have returned the book last week. 你本来应该上周就该归还这本书。

(但上周并未还) 12. D 译文:经理宁愿他女儿不和他在同一个办公室上班。

本句涉及宾语从句中的虚拟语气的用法。在 would rather,would sooner, would just as soon, might as well 和 would prefer 等后面所跟的从句中,也可用虚拟语气,表示愿望,意为“宁愿”、“但愿”。其形式为

① “would rather ( would sooner … )+主语+谓语动词过去时”表示现在或将来的情况。

② “would rather ( would sooner … )+主语+过去完成时”表示过去的情况。

13. C 译文:你为何不让你的孩子早点睡觉? 8 本句涉及宾语从句中的虚拟语气的用法。

14. B 译文:我倒是希望你对这个问题先别发表什么看法。

本句涉及宾语从句中的虚拟语气的用法。英语中在 would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might as well 和 would prefer 等后面所跟的从句中,也可用虚拟语气,表示愿望,意为“宁愿”、“但愿”。

15. D 麦克的叔叔坚持他不留在旅馆里。

本句涉及虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用。动词 insist 后接宾语从句,从句中的谓语为“should+动词原形 (should 常省略)”。常这样用的词有:command, desire, demand, order, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest 等。

16. B 译文:我作为武装部队的总司令命令采取一切措施进行防御。

本句涉及虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用。

17. C 译文:旅馆的经理恳请客人晚上 11 点后,音乐声不要放得太响。

本句涉及虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用。

18. A 译文:我们要求导游立刻告诉我们计划有什么变动。

本句涉及虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用。

19. D 译文:他建议我们一块去看明天的展览。

本句涉及虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用。

20. C 译文:我有时希望自己生活在另一个时代和另一个地方。

本句涉及动词 wish 后所接宾语从句的用法。在 wish 后面所接的宾语从句中,要用虚拟语气结构。其主 要形式有三种:w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish+主语+动词过去式; 表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish+主语+had+过去分词; 表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish+主语+would+动词原形。

21. A 译文:我真希望今天早上能多睡一会儿,可我不得不起床去上课。

本句涉及动词 wish 后所接宾语从句的用法。

22. C 译文:琼不想马上就工作,她想要是找了工作就不能马上探访朋友了。

本句涉及 if 引导的虚拟条件句,表示与将来事实相反的假设。表示与将来事实相反的非真实条件句,从 句中的谓语动词用“were to +动词原形或 should +动词原形”,主句中的谓语动词用“should (第一人称), would (第二、三人称)+动词原形”。

23. B 译文:要是整个手术当时没有预先计划好的话,大量的金钱和时间就白花了。

本句涉及 if 条件状语从句中虚拟语气的用法,表示与过去事实相反的假设。与过去事实相反的非真实条 件句中,从句中的谓语动词用“had+过去分词”,主句的谓语动词用“should 或 would +have+过去分词”。

24. C 译文:他当时学习努力的话,这次考试就通过了。

本句涉及省略 if 的虚拟条件句。在正式文体中,有时可把虚拟条件句中的连词 if 省去,而将 were, had, should 等助动词(不包括行为动词)提到主语前面,用倒装结构。如果句中没有 were, had 或 should 时,既 不能省略 if,也不能倒装。

答案

25. D 译文:我们后天走,要是他们在这之前到达,我们就可以痛痛快快地撮一顿。

本句涉及省略 if 的虚拟条件句。

26. B 译文:她要是现在就走的话,星期天就到那儿了。

本句涉及 if 引导的虚拟条件句,表示与将来事实相反的假设。表示与将来事实相反的非真实条件句,从 句中的谓语动词用"were to +动词原形或 should +动词原形", 主句中的谓语动词用“should (第一人称) would , (第二、三人称)+动词原形”。如从句中省去 if ,主谓要用倒装结构。 9 27. C 译文:我当时要是没生病的话,就帮他了。

本句涉及省略 if 的虚拟条件句。虚拟语气也常用于“If it were (had been) not for … ”句型中,意为“要不 是… … ”。If it were not for… 表示与现在事实相反的假设。从本句的主句来判断,这是一句与过去事实相反 的虚拟条件句,If it had not been for … 表示与过去事实相反的假设,与主句中的谓语动词相一致。在正式文 体中,有时可把虚拟条件句中的连词 if 省去,而将 were, had, should 等助动词(不包括行为动词)提到主语 前面,用倒装结构。如果句中没有 were, had 或 should 时,既不能省略 if,也不能倒装。

28. A 译文:要不是你偷懒,你现在就已经完成任务了。

本句涉及省略 if 的虚拟条件句。虚拟语气也常用于“If it were (had been) not for … ”句型中,意为“要不 是… … ”。If it had not been for … 表示与过去事实相反的假设,从本句的主句来判断,这是一与过去事实相 反的虚拟条件句,与主句中的谓语动词相一致。在正式文体中,有时可把虚拟条件句中的连词 if 省去,而将 were, had, should 等助动词 (不包括行为动词) 提到主语前面, 用倒装结构。

如果句中没有 were , had 或 should 时,既不能省略 if ,也不能倒装。

29. B w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 译文:要是不太麻烦的话,就给我来杯茶吧。

本句涉及 if 条件句中的虚拟语气,表示与现在事实相反的假设。在与现在事实相反的非真实条件句中, 主句中的谓语动词用“should (第一人称)+动词原形,would (第二、三人称)+动词原形”,但在美国英 语中,主句所有人称都用 would。主句中也用“could 或 might+动词原形”。

30. A 译文:当你掉下来时,如果不是我在梯子下面把你接住,恐怕约就不会这样笑了。

本句涉及 if 引导的混合型虚拟条件句。

通常情况下, 在非真实条件句中的主句和从句所指时间是一致的, 但有时也指不同的时间,这时要根据上下文的意思采用不同的谓语动词形式。本句中,从句是对过去发生事 情的假设,主句是对现在情况的假设。

31. A 译文:我们不知道他的电话号码,否则,我们会打电话给他. 本句涉及含蓄虚拟条件句。有时假设的情况并不以条件从句表示出来,而是通过一个介词短语或其他方 式表示。除了 otherwise 外,常用的其他词或短语有:without, but for, but that,or,but 等。

32. A 译文:他准是出事了,否则,他已经到这儿了。

本句涉及含蓄虚拟条件句。

33. D 译文:如果不呆在家里,有些妇女本可获得可观的薪水,但是为了家庭,她们才决定不去工作。

本句涉及由 but 引导的暗含虚拟语气的用法。but 前面主句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气,but 后的并列句用 陈述语气。其形式为:情态动词“should(ought to,could,might) + have done " ,表示该动作本来应该发生而实际 并未发生,含有某种责怪的口气。

34. B w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 译文:我们原本就希望开业,可是钱总是不够。

本句涉及一特殊句型的虚拟语气形式。动词 be, intend, mean, plan, want, hope 等的过去完成式加动词不定 式或这些词的过去式加动词不定式的完成时也可视为虚拟语气结构,表示“过去想做而没有做的事”。

35. A 译文:疯子被关进墙上装有衬垫的病房,以防他自杀。

本句涉及连词 lest 引导的虚拟语气的用法。连接词 in case, lest, for fear that 可用来引导虚拟语气。其形 式通常为:“… lest (in case, for fear that) +主语+should+动词原形”。lest, for fear that 句中的 should 可以省去,in case 句中的 should 通常不省去,但是 in case 句中可以不用虚拟语气,而用陈述语气。lest, for fear that 后面 也可以接其他形式。

36. A 译文:埃德加怒气冲冲地对老板说:“你太自私了。你也该想想你到底有什么了不起。” 本句涉及一特殊句型中的虚拟语气。在“It is (high / about ) time (that)…”句型中要求用虚拟语气形式,从 句中常用过去式,意为“该是… … 的时候了”。例如

It is time (that) we had classes. 我们该上课了。

It is high time (that) the weather improved. 天气真该好起来了。

37. B 译文:现在已经 5 点了,你不认为我们该回家了吗? 10 本句涉及“It is (high /about) time (that)...”句型中的虚拟语气形式。

38. D 译文:要是委员会尽快批准这些规章制度并付诸实施就好了。

本句涉及 if only 引导的虚拟语气形式。在"if only"引导的感叹句中,要求用虚拟语气结构,表示愿望。

其形式为

1)表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望:动词过去时或“would / could +动词原形”; 2)表示与过去事实相反的愿望:had + done 。

39. C 译文:看我现在的处境多糟糕!要是我听了你的劝告该多好。

本句涉及 if only 引导的虚拟语气形式。

40. A 译文:要是他用心去做,我肯定他能胜任这个工作。

本句是 if only 引导虚拟语气的用法。until 和 unless 通常不和 would 连用;in case 通常与 should 连用; "if only"引导的感叹句通常要求用虚拟语气,表示愿望。1)用过去时或“would/could +动词原形”表示与现在或 未来事实相反的愿望。2)过去完成时表示与过去事实相反的愿望。但是 only if 也可用于虚拟条件句中。 历年高考题答案

1-5 DBCDD 6-10 BBBBB 16-20 CBDBD 21-25ABBAD 11-15 CDCAD 26-30 DBBDA 11