上传时间：2015-06-13 来源：best day of my life
第一篇:muse,survivalAppreciation of English Songs Listen to a song! Try to guess its theme! Sports We are the Champions ? 皇后乐队的经典名曲 ? 是许多运动，尤其是足球场上经常 回响起的令人激动的歌曲。? 这首单曲出自皇后乐队1977年10 月7日推出的著名专辑“News Of The World”，紧接在另一首名曲 “We Will Rock You”之后。在皇 后乐队的许多音乐会上，他们都会 用这两首乐曲作为结尾，将氛围推 上高潮。? 现在常用于足球比赛后的颁奖仪式 。 ? 主唱Freddie Mercury Sports ? World Cup---Football ? Olympic Games World Cup---Football 世界杯4年举办一次。世界杯已经举办了19届了，巴西世界杯是第20届。 ? 世界杯（World Cup）广泛意思是各种体育项目中的 最高质素和级别的国际性体育赛事。? 世界杯一词一般是指英式足球在全球具有广泛影响力 的世界杯足球赛，即国际足联世界杯（World Cup, FIFA World Cup） ? FIFA --- Fédération Internationale de Football Association ? 部分体育项目并没有设立世界杯赛事，或者将赛事名 称命名为“世界锦标赛”（World Championships） 。 历届世界杯主题曲 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1982年世界杯主题曲 a special kind of hero(别样的英雄) 1986年墨西哥世界杯 un‘estate italiana(意大利之夏) 1990年意大利世界杯 Glory land (荣耀之地) 1994年美国世界杯 la copa de la vida(生命之杯) 1998年法国世界杯 anthem(足球圣歌) 2002年日韩世界杯主题曲 time of our lives（生命之巅） 2006年德国世界杯 旗开得胜(《2010世界杯》中文主题曲) Waka Waka 2010年南非世界杯主题曲 2014年巴西世界杯主题曲 Gaby Amarantos Olympic Games 奥林匹克运动会（Olympic Games），简称奥运会或 奥运，是国际奥林匹克委员会主办的包含多种体育运 动项目的国际性运动会，每四年举行一次。奥林匹克 运动会最早起源于古希腊（公元前776年），因举办 地在奥林匹亚而得名。1896年4月6日至4月15日，希腊雅典举办了第一届现 代奥运会。从1896年开始奥林匹克运动会每四年举办 一次（曾在两次世界大战中中断过三次，分别是在公 元1916、1940和1944年），会期不超过16天。由于 1924年开始设立了冬季奥林匹克运动会，因此奥林匹 克运动会习惯上又称为“夏季奥林匹克运动会”。 Development 发展 ? ? ? ? 发起和兴盛公元前776年至公元前388年 衰落：公元前388年至公元前146年 消亡：公元前146年至公元394年 复苏：公元15世纪至公元1896年 ∨ 古代奥运会 现代奥运会 现代奥运会 顾拜旦(Pierre de Coubertin)则被人们誉 为“现代奥林匹克之 父” 奥林匹克宪章 奥林匹克会旗 奥林匹克格言 奥林匹克宣言 主要类型 ? 现代奥林匹克运动 ? 冬季奥运会 ? 残疾 人奥林匹克运动 会（Paralympic Games） ? 特殊奥运会 ? 听障奥运会 ? 青年奥运会 主要仪式 ? ? ? ? 开幕式 闭幕式 颁奖仪式 宣誓誓词 宣誓誓词 ? In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams ? In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Olympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them in the true spirit of sportsmanship 运动庆典 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 标志 会旗 会歌 格言 Faster，Higher，Stronger 精神 宗旨 奥林匹克日 （6月23日） 奖牌 圣火 吉祥物 主要项目 奥运会主题歌 1896年，在雅典第一 届奥运会的开幕式上 ，国王乔治一世宣布 奥运会开幕之后，合 唱队唱起了一首优美 而庄严而动听的古希 腊歌曲《撒马拉斯颂 歌》。 Reach out （最经典） ? 1984年的第23届洛杉矶 奥运会，是新中国第一 次参加夏季奥运会，那 一年，中国运动员实现 了奥运会金牌零的突破 。而由美国著名的黑人 歌手莱昂内尔· 里奇在洛 杉矶奥运会上演唱的《 Reach out》（欢乐通 宵），也是中国观众听 到的第一首奥运会主题 歌。 Hand In Hand 最流行 1988年第24届汉城奥运会 手拉手 这首旋律动听的电子乐是历届奥运 会中传唱最广的主题曲，萨马兰奇 曾认为其是最成功的奥运会主题曲 ，甚至考虑将它定为永久会歌。 这首意大利人、美国人、韩国人共 同制作的歌曲，是真正的国际化合 作。而歌曲段落末尾又揉进了朝鲜 民歌《阿里郎》里的一句咏唱“阿 里郎！”仅此一点，使这首歌在全 球流行化的同时，又因这个鲜明的 民族标签而极易被识别。 Barcelona 最时髦 1992年第25届巴塞罗那奥运会( 巴塞罗那) 词曲：英国皇后乐队主唱弗雷 德-墨丘利(Freddie Mercury)， 迈克-莫伦 演唱：英国弗雷德-莫丘(Freddie Mercury) ，西班牙蒙特塞拉特-卡巴耶(Montserrat Caballe) 《巴塞罗那》在1992年奥运会尚未开幕 时便红遍了世界。而这种摇滚和古典的巧妙 结合，营造出了一种恢宏而又磅礴的气势。1988年，墨丘里和卡巴耶合作的《巴塞罗那 》问世，并很快得到了全世界的认同，成为 排行榜上的又一首长胜歌曲。遗憾的是，在 巴塞罗那奥运会的开幕式上，我们没能看到 两人的同台表演，因为在奥运会开幕前一年 ，也就是1991的11月24日，墨丘里因艾滋病 离开了这个世界。 Reach最柔情 1996年第26届亚特兰大奥运会 登 峰造极) 词曲：黛安-沃伦(Diane Warren) ，格罗利娅-伊斯特梵(Gloria Estefan) 演唱：格罗利娅-伊斯特梵(Gloria Estefan) ? 格萝利娅· 伊斯特梵(Gloria Estefan)，这名来自美国迈阿 密古巴社区的女歌手，曾经在 重大车祸中造成半身瘫痪，但 她凭借自己坚强的毅力，最终 战胜病魔，重新站在了舞台上 ，唱出了“如果我能攀登得更 高，我要触摸广袤的天空”这 一超越生命的最强音，并凭借 这首《登峰造极》获得了当年 的格莱美音乐奖。 The Flame最高亢 2000年第27届悉尼奥运会《圣火》 ? ? 词曲：澳约翰-夫曼(John Freman) 演唱：澳蒂娜-艾莲娜(Tina Arena) 童星出身的澳洲女孩Tina Arena自小在水 银灯与掌声中成长，1991年为了进一步发 展，只身来到洛杉矶，93年加盟CBS出版 了3首张专辑《Don't Ask》所有努力与蜕 变终于得以印证。总销量达到双白金，成 为国际乐坛瞩目的人物，97年的第二张专 辑《In Deep》更展现了这位27岁女星的 迷人风采，在美国Bill board Top Ten中 长期占据首位位置，2000年的悉尼奥运会 给了Tina Arena更大的空间展现自己的才 艺，一曲“Flame”迷倒亿万乐迷，也达 到了她事业的巅峰。 Oceania最诡异 2004年第28届雅典奥运会《海洋》 词曲、演唱：冰岛 比约克(Bjork) 2004年雅典奥运会主题歌《海洋》的 演唱者是冰岛歌手比约克(Bjork)。她被称作世界乐坛最另类的前卫歌手 、拥有“天籁之音”冰岛的国宝，无 论曲风，还是行为，她都以怪诞和特 立独行著称。11岁，比约克就推出了 个人专辑《比约克》，之后赢得无数 的大奖及空前的争议。2000年，她因 主演电影《黑暗中的舞者》成为戛纳 电影节的影后。 You and Me 最期待 歌曲名称：我和你 词曲作者：陈其钢 歌曲长度：三分多钟 发行时间：08年8月8日晚 演唱歌手国际级天后+国宝级歌唱家 莎拉· 布莱曼+刘欢 Other songs 2012年伦敦奥运会官方主题曲--- Muse乐队 Survival ? 2012年伦敦奥运会闭幕式 One Direction --- What Makes You Beautiful ? 2008年北京奥运歌曲李玟/孙楠---Forever Friends ? 1992年巴塞罗那奥运会 莎拉· 布莱曼 卡雷拉斯演唱--Forever Friends ? 1996年亚特兰大奥运会主题曲 席琳迪翁---The Power of the Dream ? I Believe I Can Fly If you think you?ll lose you?re lost; For out of the world we find Success begins with a fellow?s will; It?s all in a state of mind. Life? s battles don?t always go To the stronger and faster man, But sooner or later the man who wins Is the man who thinks he can. ? Pre-enjoying What do you think are the most important factors for one to succeed? Encouragement opportunity Strong desire for success ability Friendship dream money Experience time confidence Diligence effort knowledge Perseverance belief R. Kelly ? R. Kelly，全名为Robert Sylvester Kelly（罗伯特· 西尔维斯特· 凯利），美国 创作歌手兼唱片制作人， 史上最成功的R&B艺人之 一，被誉为R&B之王， 1967年1月8日出生于美国 伊利诺伊州的芝加哥市。凭借全球卖出超过一亿五 千万张专辑的惊人销售量 、一千五百万张的单曲销 售数字、13首单曲排行冠 军纪录，R. Kelly成为20 世纪90年代至今，最具代 表性的畅销天王之一。 I Believe I Can Fly ? 这首歌是歌手R. Kelly在1996 年为飞人迈克尔· 乔丹（ Michael Jordan）的电影《 Space Jam》（太空大灌篮） 由自己作词、作曲、演唱的歌 曲。? 《I Believe I Can Fly》成为了 他最伟大的单曲之一，并在 1997年度第40届格莱美颁奖中 ，一举获得了 ? 最佳影视歌曲（Best Song Written Specifically For A Motion Picture Or For Television） ? 最佳R&B男歌手（Best Male R&B Vocal Performance） ? 最佳R&B歌曲（Best Rhythm & Blues Song） Enjoy the song: I Believe I Can Fly by R. Kelly Focus on music Focus on comprehension What do you think is the main idea of this song? A. Voice of a bird. B. Seeing is believing. C. If you believe in yourself, you can succeed. D. A person?s experience if trying to fly in the sky. I used to think that I could not go on 我原以为我无法坚持下去， And life was nothing but an awful song 生命只不过是首忧郁的歌， But now I know the meaning of true love 但现在我明白了真爱的含义， I?m leaning on the everlasting arm 找到了可以永久依靠的臂膀。If I can see it, then I can do it 只要我能看见希望，我就能成功， If I just believe it 如果我相信我能行， There?s nothing to it 那就没有什么不可以。 I believe I can fly 我相信我能飞翔， I believe I can touch the sky 我相信我能触到天空。I think about it every night and day 日日夜夜，我想象这一幕， Spread my wings and fly away 展翅高飞…… I believe I can soar 我相信我能高飞， I see me running through that open door 我看见我穿过那敞开 的生命之门, I believe I can fly 我相信我能飞翔, I believe I can fly 我相信我能飞翔, I believe I can fly 我相信我能飞翔。 See I was on the verge of breaking down 看，我在崩溃堕落的边缘 Sometimes silence can seem so loud 有时沉默也能震耳欲聋 There are miracles in life I must achieve 生命中很多奇迹等我去实现 But first I know 但我知道要实现奇迹， It starts inside of me, oh 就必须先从我做起。If I can see it 如果我还能看见希望， Then I can do it 我就能成为那个我想成为的人， If I just believe it 我相信我能行， There's nothing to it 那就没有什么不可以。 ? ? ? ? ? Repeat *-* ? Cause I believe in me. If I can see it, then I can do it. If I just believe it, there is nothing to it. Repeat *-* ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? If I just spread my wings. I can fly. I can fly. I can fly, hey. If I just spread my wings I can fly. Hmm… Fly, fly, fly… The song will be played for you once again. Consider the following questions while enjoying the song. 1. What does “life was nothing but an awful song” mean? a. Life was an awful song. b. Life was a happy song. c. Life was only an awful song. 2. What is meant by “if I just believe it, there is nothing to it. ”? a. If I just believe it, I can do it easily. b. If I just believe it, I will have nothing left. c. If I just believe it, I can?t do anything to help it. 3. “I was on the verge of breaking down” means ___. a. I almost gave up. b. My spirit almost collapsed c. I nearly fell down when I came to the edge of the road. Work in groups and share the ideas. 1. What do you usually say to encourage yourself? 2. What does “fly” really mean in this song? Singing the Song ? ? ? ? ? ? I used to think that I could not go on And life was nothing but an awful song But now I know the meaning of true love I'm leaning on the everlasting arms If I can see it, then I can do it If I just believe it There's nothing to it I believe I can fly I believe I can touch the sky I think about it every night and day Spread my wings and fly away See I was on the verge of breaking down Sometimes silence can seem so loud There are miracles in life I must achieve But first I know It starts inside of me, oh Other songs related to basketball ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Where is the love Hey Ya Remember The Name Dilemma Army Of The Pharaoh Get No Better Rocket Man Coming Home Every Day Fighter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? The Game of Love Why Can't I Remember the Name Last Night No More Sorrow Till I Collapse Believe Me I'll Be There for You Thank you for your listening!
第一篇:muse,survivalThe Age of Realism The Literature of the Late Nineteenth Century The Age of RealismMarked by the End of the Civil War1861-1865 ? Cost of the Civil War ? The Human Cost ? 1,094,543 Casualties ? The North lost one out of ten ? The South lost one out of four ? Two percent of US population died in the Civil War, with only WWII claiming more lives; ? Estimated at 6.6 billion, which would be 165 billion today ? 94,000 in battle ? 64,000 to disease ? 110,100 in battle ? 224,580 to disease ? Economic Cost By the end of the Civil War ? The Emancipation Proclamation and 13th Amendment had abolished slavery ? The industrial North had defeated the agrarian South ? Social order grew based on mass labor and mass consumption; ? The Industrial Revolution had begun ? Steam power replaced water power ? Machines replaced hand labor The Effects of The Industrial Revolution ? Migration from rural to urban areas ? Independent, skilled workers replaced by semi-skilled laborers; ? Large corporations were established, devaluing the personal relationship between management and workers or company and customers. Political Upheaval ? Political power shifted to the laboring classes; ? Political patronage and graft caused civic corruption; ? The power of the federal government expanded during the Civil War; ? National conscription laws; ? Federal income taxes levied; ? Paper money backed by federal government rather than individual states issued. Mass Communication and Migration ? Coast-to-coast communication ? Pony Express (1860)—10 days Telegraph (1861)—just seconds to communicate across country Transatlantic telegraph cable (1866) allowed instant communicate with Europe Telephone patented (1867) By 1900, 1.3 million telephones in U.S. Coast-to-coast travel Transcontinental Railroad (1869) By 1889, coast-to-coast travel—4 days Alexander Graham Bell Samuel MorseInventor of the Transcontinental Railroad Telegraph Effects of Transcontinental Mobility ? Increased commercial development ? Farm and ranching products available nation wide ? National retail organizations undersold local shop keepers ? Time zones reduced from 56 to 4 in 1883 ? Richard Sears and Montgomery Wards ? Ready-made goods and clothes less expensive than local, hand-produced wares Other Social Changes ? Migration westward expanded the U.S. from the Atlantic to the Pacific ? Growth of Industry ? Steelmaking, the nation’s dominant industry ? Alternating electrical current (1886) ? American petroleum industry begins ? Total population doubled from 1870 to 1890 ? National income quadrupled ? Gap between rich and poor widened ? Native American populations displaced and subjugated; ? Growth of population Civil Rights Changed ? Reconstruction in the South ends by 1877 ? Poll taxes and literacy tests disqualified black voters ? Separate and unequal schools created ? White supremacy re-established ? More women entered the workforce ? All female colleges were formedVassar, Wellesley and Smith ? Women gained the right to vote in 1922 ? Women’s rights increase ? Foreign immigration increases ? Need for public education increases ? By 1910, one-third of largest cities foreign-born ? The Morrill Acct of 1862—land given to states for establishment of “land-grant” universities Intellectual RevolutionChanges in Thinking brought about by Changes in Society ? Changes in science ? Changes in psychology ? Changes in philosophy ScienceCharles Darwin ? Published The Origin of Species, ? Hypothesized that man is the product of evolution, ? Man is special not because God created him in His image, ? but because man had successfully adapted to changing environmental conditions ? and had passed on his survival-making characteristics to his progeny. PsychologySigmund Freud ? Believed that the mind could be understood in terms of repressed urges, usually sexual; ? Theorized an unconscious system of ideas that governs human reactions and response; ? Id, Ego, and Super-ego PhilosophyKarl Marx ? Explained human history as the result of class struggles; ? Human identity is defined by social context; ? It is human nature to transform nature. PhilosophyAmerican Pragmatism ? Truth is tested by its usefulness or practical consequences; ? Truth is a commodity accessible on the surface of things; ? It’s perceptible to the senses and verifiable through experience; ? Permanent truths exist apart from the material world—the mind of God, Plato’s ideal forms William James From these social changes come two literary movements ? Realism, ? first begun as the local color movement ? Naturalism Realism ? Begins in France, as realisme, a literary doctrine calling for “reality and truth in the depiction of ordinary life.” ? Grounded in the belief that there is an objective reality which can be portrayed with truth and accuracy as the goal; ? The writer does not select facts in accord with preconceived ideals, but rather sets down observations impartially and objectively. A Reaction against Romanticism ? These authors sought to portray life as they saw it, insisting that the ordinary and local were just as suitable for art as the sublime. “Nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material. “ William Dean Howells Realism began in America as Local Color ? A synthesis of romantic plots and realistic descriptions of things; ? Definition of Local Color: ? Literature that focuses on the characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features particular to a specific region that exploits the speech, dress, mannerisms, and habits of that specific region . Characteristics of Local Color ? Setting—often remote and usually integral to the story; ? Characters—more concerned with the character of the region than an individual— quaint, stereotypical; ? Narrator-- an educated observer from the world beyond who’s often deceived ? Emphasis on dialect ? Use of stock characters ? Plot—nothing much happens, revolves around the community and its rituals Themes in Local Color ? Dislike of change, nostalgia for an always-past Golden Age; ? Triumphant trickster or trickster tricked; ? Tall tale-tradition, conflicts described humorously, larger than life Characteristics of Realism ? Subject matter—ordinary people and events; ? Purpose—Verisimilitude, the truthful representation of life; ? Point of View—omniscient and objective ? Characters—middle class, psychological realism ? Plot de-emphasized ? Focus on everyday life ? Complex ethical choices often the subject ? Events are made to seem the inevitable result of characters’ choices Themes in Realism ? Humans control their destinies ? characters act on their environment rather than simply reacting to it. ? Slice-of-life technique ? often ends without traditional formal closure, leaving much untold to suggest man’s limited ability to make sense of his life. NaturalismA Harsher Realism DefinitionA literature that depicts social problems and views humans as victims of larger biological, psychological and social and economic forces. ? Scientific determinism ? Psychological determinism ? Historical determinism Scientific, Biological or Darwinian Determinism ? Man has no direct control over who or what he is. His fate is determined by outside forces that can be discovered through scientific inquiry; ? Humans respond to environmental forces and internal stresses and drives, none of which can be fully controlled or understood ? People are driven by fundamental urges like fear, hunger, sex ? The world is a “competitive jungle,” Psychological Determinism ? Man is a victim of his inner and subconscious self (Freud). Historical Determinism ? Historical or socioeconomic determinism (Marx)the world is a battleground of economic and social forces; Objectives of Naturalism ? Presentation is objective and detached ? Subject matter—raw and unpleasant experiences which reduce people to degrading circumstances in order to survive; ? Setting commonplace and un-heroic ? Novelist discovers qualities in lower class characters usually associated with heroes ? Suggestion that life on lowest levels is more complicated Themes in Naturalism ? Man is fundamentally an animal, without free will; ? Governed by determinism ? Pessimistic view of human capabilities—life is a trap ? External and internal forces, environment or heredity control behavior; ? Characters have compensating humanistic values which affirm life; ? Struggle for life becomes heroic and affirms human dignity The Ultimate Problem in Realism ? Whose reality is portrayed? ? Those in power, usually male, white and privileged ? Whose reality is marginalized and ignored? ? Those without powerwomen, people of color, people of lower economic means
第一篇:muse,survivalIntercuItural communication involves interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter the communication event. Our goal in this class is to answer some of the following questionsWhy do we often uncomfortable when encountering people who are different from yourself? Why do people from different cultures behave in ways that seem strange to you? How do cultural differences influence communication? Which cultural differences are important and which are inconsequential? Why is it difficult to understand and appreciate cultural difference? ? ? ? ? ? CHAPTER 1 Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future Challenge? ? Societies around the globe have been interwoven into a complex fabric of interdependent economic, technological, political, and social relationships. – This is called Globalization. – Globalization has greatly increased the economic strength of many nations and bring people together from different cultures. However, it could resulting more competition for natural resources, international conflicts and security, environmental issues, and world health issues. CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future Other challenges? Due to the world's increasing population, we will see... – more people are moving to developed countries (shifting populations). This could bring more communication issues in multicultural societies. ? Meanwhile, aging population in more developed countries – Could bring more communication issues between older generations and younger generations (this can be treated as co-culture). ? No Direct Mind-to-Mind Contact ? We can only Infer ? We seek to define the world ? Communication is self-Reflective ? The Brain is an open system - we learn to communicate ? Communication has a consequence CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future ? Defining Communicationit's a dynamic process in which people attempts to share their internal states with other people through the use of symbols. ? Principles of Communicationa) It is a dynamic process b) It is symbolic c) It is contextual (situations) d) it is self-reflective e) we learn to communicate f) it has a consequence ? Functions of Communicationa) Gather information about other people b) Fulfill interpersonal needs c) Establishes personal identities d) Influence others CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future Dominant Culture Co-Cultures ? It's the one in power ? They are numerous. control. ? Distinct and unique ? Control the major patterns of communication institutions within the that they have learned. culture such aschurch, gov., ? Can be based on race, education, military, mass ethnic background, age, sex, media, monetary systems, or other factors. etc. ? We learn our culture through proverbs – Offer an important set of instructions CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future ? Culture is – Transmitted from generation to generation – Learned – Shared – Based on symbols – Dynamic – An intergrated system ? We learn our culture from folk tales, legends, and myths. The Epic of Gilgamesh (Sumerian) Wencheng ? We learn our culture through art – Art is a symbolic way of communicating (pics taken from The Corning Museum of Glass) ? We learned our culture through mass media ? Culture is transmitted from generation to generation ? Culture is based on symbols ? Culture is subjected to change ? Culture is integrated ? Culture is Ethnocentric ? Culture is adaptive ? ? ? ? CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future Defining Cultureit's a set of human-made objectives and subjective elements that – increased the probability of survival – satisfaction for the participants in an ecological niche – share with those who could communicate with each other and lived in the same time and place. Subjective elements includevalues, beliefs, attitudes, orientations, and underlying assumptions prevalent among people in the society. Basic functions of Cultureadapt to a particular ecology, and includes the knowledge that people need to have in order to function in their own social environment. Elements includeHistory, Regligion, Values, Social organizations, and Language. CHAPTER 1 - Communication and CultureThe Challenge of The Future ? In order to study cross-cultural communication, we must pay attention to the followinga) Each individual are unique. b) Stereotyping. c) Objectivity. d) Communication is not a Cure-all. CHAPTER 2 The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? The deep structure of culture is the unconscious assumptions about how the world operates. It makes each culture unique, and explains how and why of a culture's collective action. ? At the core of any culture's deep structure are its social organizations (or social institutions). ? Lessons about life and ways for living that life ? It's based on cooperation ? Three most enduring and influential social organizations that deal with deep structure issues are ? Family ? State (Community) ? Religion (Worldview) CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? Why do most serious confrontations and misunderstandings can be traced to cultural differences? ?Different civilizations have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual group and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. - p.51 CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? The Deep Structure of Culture contains the following?A culture's most important beliefs ?History (origin) ?Involves deep and emotional feelings ?Supply much of a person's identity CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? The Importance of Family?The family is the principal transmitter of knowledge, values, attitudes, roles, and habits from one generation to the next. Through word and example, the family shapes a child's personality and instills modes of thoughts and ways of acting that become habitual p.55 CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? Traditionally, most people encounter two families during the course of their lifethe family they are born into and the family that is formed when and if they take a name. ? But there are fewer "typical" American families in the U.S. than ever before. Most of these changes were brought about by the following: ? Economic changes ? Technological innovations ? Demographics ? Gender roles and opportunities for women (ExamplesSingle parent, never married couples, adopted child etc.) Can you think of any similar changes in China? CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? Globalization has major impact on traditional family structure all through the world. The two characteristics of globalization that have been the most responsible for those changes are (1) mass media and (2) migration. ? Mass Media ?Family values exposed to different set of values ?Examplematerials & money vs. spirituality & principles ? Migration ?Millions of workers leave their families and move from one place to another place to seek jobs or higher wages. CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? Families perform a series of key functions in all cultures. These functions include teaching members of the culture about economics, socialization, values and religion, individualism and collectivism, and social skills. CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality ? History is the witness that testifies to the passing of time; illumines reality, vitalizes memory, provides guidance in daily life, and brings us tidings of antiquity. ? A culture's history affects individual perception and behavior and how people relate to another culture. ? Two assumptions? Historical events help explain the character of a culture. ? What a culture seeks to remember and pass onto the next generation tells us about the character of that culture. CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality History of United States? Those who originally arrived on the Atlantic coast brought many English values, system of law, and the basic organization of commerce during 16th century. ? “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” – liberties had to be secured against abusive power of government (independent from Britain) ? Environmental factors brought psychological effects on the settlerssurvival based on individualism CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality History of Russia? The history of Russians have been subjected to invasion and suffering. (Mongols, Germans, Turks, Poles, Swedes, French, and English) – therefore , militarized absolutism. ? Molded by the type of leadership that has control the country for thousand of years – follow orders and accept “words” (dictums) of their leaders. ? A deep appreciation and devotion to the performing arts and cultural arts. ? The size of land have created the people to think (muse) about life. CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality History of China? “Consider the past then you’ll know the present” – the importance of history. History links all members of the culture. ? China’s long history of physical and cultural isolation. – may partly attributed their intense national pride. They were the source of the culture of most of neighbors. Considered others were inferior. ? View family value as priority and civilization has been built on agriculture - Collectivism CHAPTER 2 - The Deep Structure of CultureRoots of Reality History of Japan? Based on series of islands, Japan is yet another isolated country – strong sense of self-identity, acutely aware of anything that comes from outside. ? 250 years of feudal period – loyalty for the feudal lords in the past (now companies); discipline and sacrifice; lack of individualism. ? Collectivism – cooperative efforts, group identification and group action. CHAPTER 3 Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? How identity influences and guides expectations about your own and others' social roles, and provides guidelines for your communication interaction with others. ? Factors includepolitical views, religious beliefs, lifestyle choices, ethnic similarity, economic interest, etc. ? Some selected social identities in chapter: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Racial Identity Ethnic Identity Gender Identity National Identity Regional Identity Organizational Identity Personal Identity Cyber and Fantasy Identity CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? The initial exposure to our identity came from our family where we began to learn culturally appropriate beliefs, values, and social roles. ? Later, education and mass media can play a considerable role in our identity development. ? Three-stage identity development models (Phinney) ? Unexamined ethnic identity - ethnic identity search - ethnic achievement ? Four-stage identity development models (Martin and Nakayama) ? ? Model for minorityUnexamined identity - conformity - resistance and separatism - integration Model for majorityUnexamined identity - acceptance - resistance redefinition and reintegration CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? The Dark Side of Identity - Stereotyping ? - a means of organizing your images into fixed and simple categories that you use to represent an entire collection of people. ? can be positive or negative ? narrow our perceptions (oversimplified, exaggerated, and overgeneralized) ? stereotypes are learned (again, begins with our early education) ? may evolve out of fear of persons from groups that differ from one's own ? How to avoid stereotypes? ? aware of your tendency to engage in categorization ? open to new information and evidence ? being aware of your zone of discomfort CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? The Dark Side of Identity - Prejudice (part 1) ? - they are deeply held negative feelings associated with a particular group. These sentiments often include anger, fear, aversion, and anxiety. ? directed at a social group and its members ? involve with evaluative dimension (right/wrong, moral/immoral) ? possess centrality (strong belief) ? Functions ? ego-defensivehold prejudice without having to admit... ? utilitarianreceiving rewards by holding on to their prejudicial beliefs. ? value-expressivewhen they believe their attitudes are expressing the highest and most moral values of the culture. ? knowledgeable to categorize, organize, and construct their perceptions of other people in a manner that makes sense to them. CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? The Dark Side of Identity - Prejudice (part 2) ? Five expressions of prejudice? antilocution; avoidance; discrimination; physical attacks; extermination ? Causes? Societal sources - major organizations and institutions produce laws, regulations, and norms that create prejudice within a society. ? Maintaining social identity - the connection between our identity and culture can be personal and emotional. Anything that threatens that bond can become the target of prejudice. ? Scapegoating - minority group gets the blame. ? How to avoid prejudice? ? Personal contact & education CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? The Dark Side of Identity - Racism ? - is an extension of stereotyping and prejudice - the belief in the inherent superiority of a particular race. ? can be categorized as either personal or institutional. ? institutional can refer to schools, corporations, hospitals, or criminal justice system. ? may be intentional or unintentional ? some can be easily to detect, while others are almost impossible. ? How to avoid racism? ? Try to be honest to yourself ? Object to racist jokes and insults whenever you hear them ? Respect freedom ? Examine the historical roots of racism CHAPTER 3 - Culture and the IndividualCultural Identity ? The Dark Side of Identity - Ethnocentrism ? - is the notion that one's own culture is superior to any other. ? links ethnocentrism to the concepts of stereotyping, prejudice, and racism. ? can be viewed as three levelspositive, negative, and extremely negative. ? most people are ethnocentric ? contributes to cultural identity ? Why there can be serious consequences if you engage in negative ethnocentrism? ? The more et作文hnocentric you are, the more anxious you are; when we are fearful, we are less likely to expect a positive outcome and less willing to trust someone from another culture. ? How to avoid ethnocentrism? ? Avoid dogmatism CHAPTER 4 Shaping Interpretations of RealityCultural Values CHAPTER 4 - Shaping Interpretation of RealityCultural Values ? Perception is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory data in a way that enables us to make sense of the world. CHAPTER 4 - Shaping Interpretation of RealityCultural Values ? Perception is selective. A part of perception is determined by culture. ? Perceptual patterns are learned. Beliefs ? ? ? ? A storage system. Shaped by individual’s culture. Accepted as truths. Usually reflected in your actions and communication behavior. Values ? Beliefs from the basis of our values. ? Represents what is expected or hoped for, required or forbidden. ? Can be classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary. ? Beliefs – Value – Attitude – Behavior (p.139, Remember this) CHAPTER 4 - Shaping Interpretation of RealityCultural Values ? Cultural patterns = Perceptions + Perceptual patterns ? (p.140 Remember this) ? Cultural patterns are complex, integrated, dynamic, and can be contradictory. ? Hofestede’s 5 Value Dimensions 1. Individualism vs. Collectivism 2. Uncertainty avoidance 3. Power distance 4. Masculinity vs. Femininity 5. Long term vs. Short term ? Kluckhohns and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientations 1. Human nature 2. Relationship between humankind and nature 3. Sense of time 4. Value placed on Activity? 5. Social relationships CHAPTER 4 - Shaping Interpretation of RealityCultural Values Hall's High-context (HC) & Low-context(LC) Orientations ? Context - information surrounds an event. ? HC = most of the information is already in person. ? LC = mass of the information is vested in the explicit code. Face and Facework ? Face = as a metaphor for the self-image you want to project to other people. ? Facework = construction and communication of face.